Historical Over View
Bishoftu city is found at the center of Adea Liban district. Its exact time of foundation did not known, but some existing documents enlisted that it was established around 1917 with the starting of Ethio –Djibouti railway. The name Bishoftu comes from the Afan Oromo language called “Bishaanoftu” which refers to “The land of excessive water body” in addition to this, the word Bishoftu is given to the city from the existing of many volcanic crater lakes such as Bishoftu , Hora Arsade, Cheleleka /seasonal / ,Kuriftu , Kilole , Green lake and Babugaya.
Regarding to its growth, the town had became the administrative centre of Adea Liban District from 1935 to 1982 E.C. Since of 1983-1994 E.C it was the political centre of Adea District. Beginning from 1995 it is first level city with Mayor, Municipality Administer, it has own city Council's and city cabinet members. Gradually the city had developed from a station center to a large and big city. In 1976, it had 3280 hec. Area of land, a decade later in 1986 the area of the city had grown to 3300 hec. In 1996 the total area grows to 4500 hec. In 2001 the area increased to 14500 hec. and now days the total area of the Bishoftu city grown to 18278 hec. For administrative simplicity, the city is divided in to 13 Kebeles. The first master plan of the city was made in 1961 and revised in 1978, 1992, 2001, and 2004 Ec. The Municipality of the city was founded around 1943 Ec.
The city administration is located between 80451- 80471 North latitudes and 380561-390East longitudes. It is situated at a distance of 47 km south East of Addis Ababa, and 52 KM from Adama. In the North the city is bordered with yerer silassie , in the south with Wedo and Keta Jara , in East with Kaliti and in the West with Dire town and peasant association.
AREA AND LAND USE
In 1976, it had 3280 hec. area of land, a decade later in 1986 the area of the city had grown to 3300 hec. In 1996 the total area grows to 4500 hec. In 2001, it increases to 14,500 hec. Now a day the total area of the city incorporated under the master plan is enlarged to 18,278 hec. However, the area actually under the control of the city administration does not give services as planned for its specific (intended) use. Land use planning is one of the most important methods of allocating land for targeted functions. Land use of the city is the major indicator of the allocation of total land for different economic and social purposes. It also helps for reducing urban problems and managing built up areas. Land in urban centers has a great value and requires critical analysis for proper management of every urban function. Since land has great importance in generating revenue.
This natural phenomenon is the most important physical environment that helps for growth and development of the city. The natural topography of Bishoftu city with buffer zones has been characterize in the north and east by flat land, which is broken by the swampy, express road, rail way and lakes. In the south by undulating land that is dominate by hills, in general, the topography of the city is undulating, that is dominate by hills. The elevation of the city ranges from 1800-1995 meter from mean sea level (M.S.L.) it is very important to note here that the city is part of the rift valley.
Climate is one of the prominent factors that influence the activities of people either directly or indirectly. The elements of climate include temperature, rainfall and wind. It is mainly the altitude that makes the climate to vary from place to place. The climate of the city in general belongs to woina dega (Agro climatic zone) . The Maximum annual temperature is 26.25 0c and the Minimum is 11.18. Annual average rainfall of the city is 762 mm. April is the hottest month of the year (31.10C), while December is the coldest month (7.6 0C). December is the driest months, while August is the rainy month (209.9mm) of the year. The highest wind speed is registered in March (2.24m/s) and the most common wind direction seen in the city is easterlies.
Population dynamics of a given settlement area is the result of fertility, mortality and migration. Those demographic processes are complex phenomenon affected by social, cultural, economic, political and psychological factors. In urban environment, migration has predominant role in changing the population characteristics and reflects the urbanization rate. The data obtained from the population projection made by Bishoftu Finance and Economic Development Office, the city has a total population of 201,408 by the year 2015. From the total population 97,683 (48.5%) are Males and 103,725(51.5%) are females including the rural kebeles currently incorporated under the administration of the city. From table 2.3 one can understand that economically independent population is about 70% when compared to other dependent population categories. And this reveals that the city has a great potential of using this active human resource. Above and beyond, preferring the city for living due to the conducive environment and its accessibility to Finfinne and surrounding towns; many of government and non-government employees who are working at the near side cities/towns like Dukem, Gelan, Finfinne and Modjo are living in the city. Hence, the population of the city is estimate to be more than the above figure/data because of the fact that investment expansion and inflow of job seekers and employees at different factories. The following table reveals that